The Battle of Verrières Ridge was part of the Battle of Normandy, in northwestern France, during the Second World War. Two Canadian infantry divisions—with additional support from the 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade—fought elements of three German SS Panzer divisions. The battle began on 19 July 1944 as part of the British and Canadian attempts to break out of Caen. The immediate Allied objective was Verrières Ridge, a belt of high ground dominating the route from Caen to Falaise, which was invested by battle-hardened German veterans. Over six days, Canadian and British forces made repeated attempts to capture the ridge, with heavy Allied casualties for little strategic gain. The battle is remembered for its tactical and strategic miscalculations, including a controversial attack by The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada on 25 July, the costliest single day for a Canadian battalion since the 1942 Dieppe Raid. (Full article...)
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- 998 – Arab–Byzantine wars: After an initial Byzantine victory in the Battle of Apamea, a lone Kurdish rider managed to kill Byzantine commander Damian Dalassenos, allowing Fatimid troops to turn the tide of the battle.
- 1843 – SS Great Britain (pictured), the first ocean-going ship that had both an iron hull and a screw propeller, launched from Bristol, England.
- 1903 – French cyclist Maurice Garin won the first Tour de France.
- 1989 – After suffering an uncontained failure of an engine which destroyed all of its hydraulic systems, United Airlines Flight 232 broke up during an emergency landing in Sioux City, Iowa, U.S., killing 111 people.
- 2014 – Unidentified gunmen perpetrated an armed assault against an Egyptian military checkpoint in the Libyan Desert, killing at least 22 border guards.
- Age of Earth: ~ 4.568 billion years
- World Population: 7.3 billion (July 2015)
- Continents: 7 (Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia)
- Mean Radius: 6371.0 km
- Axial Tilt: 23,44°
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Our solar system consists of
1 star (Sun) and 8 planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune).
- 1 AU (astronomical unit) is roughly the distance between Earth and the Sun (about 150 million kilometres).
- The space probe Voyager 1 was launched by the NASA in 1977 and is meanwhile (autumn 2015) about 133 AU away from Earth.