Gerard (died 1108) was Archbishop of York between 1100 and 1108 and Lord Chancellor of England from 1085 until 1092. A Norman, he was a member of the cathedral clergy at Rouen before becoming a royal clerk under King William I of England, who appointed him Lord Chancellor. He continued in that office under King William II Rufus, who rewarded him with the Bishopric of Hereford in 1096. Soon after Henry I's coronation, Gerard was appointed to the recently vacant see of York, and became embroiled in the dispute between York and the see of Canterbury concerning which archbishopric had primacy over England. He secured papal recognition of York's jurisdiction over the church in Scotland but was forced to accept Canterbury's authority over York. He also worked on reconciling the Investiture Controversy between the king and the papacy over the right to appoint bishops until the controversy's resolution in 1107. Because of rumours, as a student of astrology, that he was a magician and a sorcerer, and also because of his unpopular attempts to reform his clergy, he was denied a burial inside York Minster but his remains were later moved into the cathedral. (Full article...)
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- 876 – Abbasid forces decisively defeated those of the Saffarid emir Ya'qub ibn Laith, forcing the latter to halt his advance into Iraq.
- 1630 – Kiliaen van Rensselaer purchased land near present-day Albany, New York, to found the Manor of Rensselaerswyck, which became the most successful patroonship under the Dutch West India Company system.
- 1911 – American cartoonist Winsor McCay released the silent short film Little Nemo (featured), one of the earliest animated films.
- 1968 – BOAC Flight 712 experienced an engine fire shortly after take-off from London Heathrow, leading to the deaths of five people on board, including flight attendant Jane Harrison, who was posthumously awarded a George Cross for heroism.
- 2013 – Two Sunni Muslim extremist groups, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Al-Nusra Front, merged to become the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
- Age of Earth: ~ 4.568 billion years
- World Population: 7.3 billion (July 2015)
- Continents: 7 (Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia)
- Mean Radius: 6371.0 km
- Axial Tilt: 23,44°
Image Source: Wikipedia - License: Public Domain (thanks to NASA)
Our solar system consists of
1 star (Sun) and 8 planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune).
- 1 AU (astronomical unit) is roughly the distance between Earth and the Sun (about 150 million kilometres).
- The space probe Voyager 1 was launched by the NASA in 1977 and is meanwhile (autumn 2015) about 133 AU away from Earth.